Recovering quality of life (ReQol)

Project theme: Outcomes measurement

Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL): development of a brief generic mental health recovery patient reported outcome measure.

The Department of Health is committed to increasing the use of outcome measures in the NHS to improve the care in people with mental health problems (Closing the Gap 2014).

First, the NHS Outcomes framework aims to incorporate indicators to promote a greater focus on outcomes that matter most to patients. Second, with the introduction of Payment by Results in mental health, the collection of a PROM is necessary.

It has been recognised that the main generic measure, the EQ-5D, is not appropriate in many areas of mental health. A generic measure needs to be:

There is no off-the-shelf preference measure that can be satisfactorily used, necessitating the development of a new generic preference based measure in the area of mental health.

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Project team

Anju Keetharuth


Anju Keetharuth - 


Keetharuth, A., Brazier, J., Connell, J., Carlton, J., Taylor Buck, E., Ricketts, T. and Barkham, M. (2017) Development and validation of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) outcome measure (PDF, 2MB). Policy Research Unit in Economic Evaluation of Health and Care Interventions. Universities of Sheffield and York. EEPRU Research Report 050. 050, March 2017. DOI:


What is ReQoL? (PDF, 321KB)

Development of a new patient reported outcome measure for mental health services (PDF, 1.4MB)


Keetharuth, A.D., Gray, L.A., McGrane, E. et al. Mapping Short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS) to Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) to estimate health utilities. Health Qual Life Outcomes 22, 7 (2024).

Hussain H, Keetharuth AD, Rowen D, Wailoo A. (2022) Convergent validity of EQ-5D with core outcomes in dementia: a systematic review. Health Qual Life Outcomes 20, 152.

Grundy, A., Keetharuth, A., Barber, R., Carlton, J., Connell, J., Taylor Buck, E., Barkham, M., Ricketts, T., Robotham, D., Rose, D., Kay, J., Hanlon, R. and Brazier, J. (2019) Public involvement in health outcomes research: lessons learnt from the development of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) measures, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2019, 17:60, published 11 April 2019.

Keetharuth, A. D., Bjorner, J. B., Barkham, M., Browne, J., Croudace, T. and Brazier, J. (2018) Exploring the item sets of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) measures using factor analysis, Quality of Life Research, 2018 December 21:1-1.

Connell, J., Carlton, J., Grundy, A., Taylor Buck, E., Keetharuth, A., Ricketts, T., Barkham, M., Rose, D., Robotham, D., Rose, D. and Brazier, J. (2018) The importance of content and face validity in instrument development: lessons learnt from service users when developing the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) measure, Quality of Life Research, 27(7):1893–902.

Keetharuth, A.D., Taylor Buck, E., Conway, K., Acquadro, C., Connell, J., Barkham, M. et al. (2018) Integrating qualitative and quantitative data in the development of outcome measures: the case of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) measures in mental health populations, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7).

Keetharuth, A., Brazier, J., Connell, J., Bjorner, J., Carlton, J., Taylor Buck, E. and Barkham, M. (2018) Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL): a new generic self-reported outcome measure for use with people experiencing mental health difficulties, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 212(1), pp. 42-49. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2017.10

Brazier, J., Connell, J., Papaioannou, D., Mukuria, C., Mulhern, B., Peasgood, T., Lloyd-Jones, M. et al. (2014) A systematic review, psychometric analysis and qualitative assessment of generic preference-based measures of health in mental health populations and the estimation of mapping functions from widely used specific measures, Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 18(34).

Connell, J., Brazier, J., O’Cathain, A., Myfanwy Lloyd-Jones, M. and Paisley, S. (2012) Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(138).

Janice Connell, J., O’Cathain, A. and Brazier, J. (2014) Measuring quality of life in mental health: are we asking the right questions?, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 120, pp. 12-20.